today i would like to share some notes that i have found in the internet.
i hope that you will get a clear picture about this topic
Career Development Theory
Trait and Factor Theory:
Major Proponents -- Frank Parsons, Edmund Williamson
Trait refers to a characteristic of an individual that can be measured through testing.
Factor refers to a characteristic required for successful job performance.
The traits and factors that are most important for career development and that can be assessed through testing are: aptitudes, achievements, interests, values, and personality.
Aptitudes measure inate capacity a person has to do something, thus predicting future performance. IQ is an example. The types of tests used are the SAT, ACT, GRE, MAT, GATB.
Achievements measure what a person has accomplished. Grades are an example.
Interests measure the types of jobs, activities, and situations that people prefer. GOE checklist rankings are an example. The most common tests are the Strong Vocational Interest Blank and the California Occupational Preference Survey. Interests correlate more closely with initial occupational choice than any of the other traits and factors.
Values pertain to general lifestyle values and work-related values. They are more general and consistent over time than interests. Honesty would be a value while working in situations where people trusted you would be an interest. Scales used to assess values are the Study of Values and the Values Scale. These instruments are not very good predictors of occupational choice.
Personality measures personal characteristics that persist over time. There are numerous examples of personality tests such as the MMPI II, the NEO-PIr, the Myers-Briggs. There is some correlation between personality and career choice and ability, but not enough to make these tests predictive.
John Holland’s Theory of Types:
This theory describes 6 general types that can be applied to people’s personalities and to work environments (see diagram page 46).
Realistic - TDP - primarily involves physical demands. People work with tools, machines, or animals. Technical competence and the ability to manipulate things is the most important aspect of these jobs. These personalities like to work with their hands, separate from people, on concrete tasks.
Investigative - DTP - primarily involves intellectual challenges that require using reasoning, mathematics, or scientific principles to solve problems. Problem solving, abstract thinking, logic, and creativity are essential competencies for these jobs. These personalities enjoy puzzles, intellectual challenges, and working independently to solve problems.
Artistic - TPD - primarily involves free, open, creative environments in which people have very little structure. Creativity and personal expression are essential competencies for these jobs. These personalities enjoy freedom and unstructured situations in which they can express themselves in original ways through various media.
Social - PTD primarily involves people working together to support and understand each other. Communication and listening competencies are essential for these jobs. These personalities feel a strong need to be with people in a cooperative supportive environment.
Enterprising - PDT primarily involves persuading other people to do what one wishes. Communication, leadership, management competencies are essential for these jobs. These personalities like to use data and/or their social skills to get others to do what they want, to accomplish group goals, and to achieve higher status.
Conventional - DPT - primarily involves carefully organized, structured, and planned environments in which people keep records, file papers, organize data, and work under close supervision of another person. The most important competencies for these jobs are organization and the ability to carefully follow orders. These personalities enjoy settings that are highly structured in which they have little autonomy.
Developomental / Life-Span Theory:
Major proponents -- Donald Super and Eli Ginzberg.
People develop career preferences as they mature. Different chronological stages correspond to different developmental tasks. These stages evolve from one to the next as people age.
Super is concerned with individual roles that include study, community service, leisure, work, and family. People are concerned with different aspects of these role in each developmental stage. The 6 major roles people play are: homemaker, worker, citizen, leisurite, student, and child. Psychological and biological determinants affect when a person is in each stage and how they address these roles in each stage. See diagram page 123, 124, and 128.
The stages and substages involve birth curiosity, fantasies, growth interests, capacities, crystallizing, exploration specifying, implementing, stabilizing, establishment consolidating, advancing, holding, maintenance updating, innovating, decelerating, disengagement retirement planning, and retirement living.
Ginzberg’s theory addressed 3 diffeent stages: fantasy which involves role playing and imagination (up to age 12), tentative which involves recognition of one’s interests abilities and values (12 to 17), and realistic which involves identifying an occupational choice (over 17.
Major proponent -- Anne Roe.
Concern with biological, psychological, and sociological factors that combine to form individual personalities.
This theory assumes there are 8 occupational groups: service, business contact, organization, technology, outdoor, science, general cultural, and arts & entertainment.